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If, on the other hand, I had given an outline of the distribution of the varieties or races of man, I should have departed from the plan of my work for no sufficient reason. ix by itself; and it seems better to omit it altogether from a zoological work, than to treat it in a necessarily superficial manner. Sir Charles Lyell tells us in his " Principles of Geology " that during the floods in Scotland in 1829, some pigs only six months old that were carried out to sea, swam five miles and got on shore again. As, however, the great northern continents form the central mass from which the southern regions, as it were, diverge, and as the Palearctic region is both more extensive and much better known than any other, it undoubtedly forms the most convenient starting-point for our proposed survey of the zoological history of the earth.
This was a difficult task, owing to the great uncertainty that prevails as to the affinities of many of the fossils, and my want of practical acquaintance with Palaeontology; but having carefully examined and combined the works of the best authors, I have given what I believe is the first connected sketch of the relation of extinct Mammalia to the distribution of living groups, and have arrived at some very interesting and suggestive results. The range of the birds of the genus Psophia or trumpeters, is also limited by the rivers Amazon, Madeira, Rio Negro and some others; so that in these cases we are able to define the limits of distribution with an unusual degree of accuracy, and there is little doubt the same barriers also limit a large number of other species. —Very few mammals can swim over any considerable extent of sea, although many can swim well for short distances. The Gallinse, or game-birds, may be divided into seven families: Fam. It was therefore decided to alter the arrangement, beginning with the Neotropical, and ending with the Australian CHAP. 175 regions; and a careful inspection of the diagrams themselves, taken in their entirety, will, it is believed, show that this is the most natural plan, and most truly exhibits the relations of the several regions.
Species, as such, are systematically disregarded, -firstly, because they are so numerous as to be unmanageable; and, secondly, because they represent the most recent modifications of form, due to a variety of often unknown causes, and are therefore not so clearly connected with geographical changes as are the natural groups of species termed genera; which may be considered to represent the average and more permanent viii PREFACE. 148)-General Remarks on the Extinct Mammalian Fauna of the Old and New Worlds (p. VARIOUS EXTINCT ANIMALS;-AND ON THE ANTIQUITY OF THE GENERA OF INSECTS AND LAND-MOLLUSCA. 157)-Mammalian Remains of the Secondary Formations (p. Valleys and Rivers as Barriers to Mammals.-To animals which thrive best in dry and hilly regions, a broad level and marshy valley must often prove an effectual barrier. 13 many animals are restricted to the slopes of the Himalayas or to the mountains of Central India, the flat valley of the Ganges forming a limit to their range. In the northern, more extensive, and probably more ancient land, the process of development has been more rapid, and has resulted in more varied and higher types; while the southern lands, for the most part, seem to have produced numerous diverging modifications of the lower grades of organization, the original types of which they derived either from the north, or from some of the ancient continents in Mesozoic or Palaeozoic times.
distribution of an organic type, and to be more clearly influenced by the various known or inferred changes in the organic and physical environment. 143)-Pliocene Period of Temperate South America (p. 148)-The Birth-place and Migrations of some Mammalian Families and Genera (p. The difference of vegetation and of insect life, together with an unhealthy atmosphere, no doubt often checks migration if it is attempted. In other cases, however, it is the river rather than the valley which is the barrier. Hence those curious resemblances in the fauna of South America, Australia, and, to a less extent, Madagascar, which have led to a somewhat general belief that these distant countries must at one time or other have been united; a belief which, after a careful examination of all the facts, does not seem to the author of this work to be well founded.
Bind off the next 15 (21, 30) stitches for neck opening. These 14 (18, 25) stitches will form the first shoulder. Knit or Purl the last 2 stitches together as per pattern. Continue in pattern until shoulder measures about 2 (3, 4 ) inches from the bound off stitches at the neck edge. Half way between the last increase row and the neck edge mark off the center 2 (4, 6) inches.
Work in rib pattern until work measures about 2 (3, 5) inches from the bound off stitches at the neck edge. Row 1: K or P 2 together, pattern to the end of the row. With right side facing pick up and K 11(19, 29) stitches along the center marked edge.