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The overall length is 8.4 inches, and the finish is nickel plating. 7 plier wrench with a removable jaw, stamped "Made in U. The first patent number refers to the Eifel 1916 patent #1,181,654 describing an early design for geared pliers. 15 shows a 1/2-drive Ayer 1-9/32 pressed-steel socket, stamped with the A-Circle logo and the fractional size (not shown). Given the proximity of the Ayer and Packer companies, the socket sets from either company may be found with sockets or tools from the other maker included. The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel with a black oxide coating. 18 shows a later pair of Gripso 211 8 inch vise (locking) pliers, stamped with "Vise Pliers" and the model number on one side, with "H. The notice at the left was published on page 27 of the February 19, 1914 issue of and shows Beckley-Ralston's new building at the corner of 18th Street and Michigan Avenue.
The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is black paint with polished steel faces. 11 battery terminal pliers, marked with "Blue Bird" and "U. A." forged into the handle, with "Forged Alloy" and "No. The overall length is 7.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel. The larger tools consist of a ratchet, sliding Tee handle, three extensions, a universal, and 16 1/2-hex drive deep format sockets covering all sizes from 15/32 to 15/16 by 32nds.The Allen friction ratchet was initially offered by Allen Wrench & Tool with Billings providing contract manufacturing, and Billings then later offered versions of the ratchet and socket sets under its own name. 7 shows an Allen "Universal" 1/2-drive ratchet, marked with "Allen Universal Wrench" forged into the handle, with "Patent Pending" on the reverse. The finish is nickel plating, but with substantial losses due to wear and rust. The American Saw Company was founded in 1867 in Trenton, New Jersey as a maker of all kinds of saws. The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating. The second date refers to patent #1,199,738, filed by F. The company was founded in the 1880s by Elbridge F. The overall length is 9.1 inches, and the maximum opening is 2.2 inches. The end of the handle has been formed into a spoon for use in removing tires from their rims.The pending status refers to patent #1,261,092, filed by F. By 1884 (or earlier) the company was offering alligator wrenches with diagonally cut teeth, and in later years the company branched out into making pipe wrenches and other tools as well. 11 shows a 1/2-drive Artisan socket set in a metal case, consisting of a ratchet, flex-head breaker bar, extension, and 13 sockets ranging in size from 7/16 up to 1-1/8. The earlier date refers to patent #1,072,807, filed by F. Barnes and remained in business at least through 1909. 16 shows a Barnes 5 inch adjustable wrench of the bicycle style, marked with "Barnes Tool Company" forged into the shank, with "Drop Forged Steel" and a "W" code on the reverse. Basford Company was a maker of locking pliers and related tools sold under the "GRIPSO" brand. Basford filed a trademark application for "GRIPSO" on June 11 of 1945, with May 11 listed as the first use date. Bemis & Call was an early maker of tools and hardware dating back to an 1844 partnership between Stephen C. The company produced a variety of tools including pipe wrenches, monkey wrenches, and other adjustable wrenches, and was especially well known for their S-shaped adjustable wrenches.The overall length is 5.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel. In addition, the distinctive forged handle is identical to the S-K Model 42470 Ratchet shown in our article on S-K. 13 shows an Atha 20 ounce ballpeen hammer, marked "Made in U. A." with the Atha Horseshoe logo on the reverse head. The face is stamped "Bemis & Call Company" and "Springfield" (see middle inset), although the markings are very worn and difficult to read. The patent notice refers to patent #1,893,353, filed by J. These sets featured distinctive copper-coated sockets and tools in various sizes of hex drive.The patent notation is actually probably a reference to the "Alligator" trademark, registered by American Saw in 1887. The weight is not marked on the head, but the head dimensions indicate a 20 ounce nominal weight. Ayer Manufacturing Company was founded in 1904 as a machine shop in Chicago Heights, Illinois, and was incorporated in 1906. Ayer company remains in business today, and their web site offers an informative page on the Company History [External Link]. 14 shows an Ayer 1/2-drive Tee-handle ratchet, stamped "F. The overall length is 6.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint. The ad at the left was published on page 73 of the December 28, 1922 issue of and shows two early Bethlehem "Quickway" socket sets, a Mechanics' "D" set with 23 sockets, "L"-handle, "T"-handle, and ratchet, plus an "E" set consisting of an "L"-handle and eight sockets.