Orthodox christain dating
Except for national churches, such as the Armenian, the indigenous communities are predominantly Arabic-speaking; most of them, very likely, descendants of the early Christian communities of the Byzantine period.The Orthodox Church (also termed Eastern or Greek-Orthodox Church) consists of a family of Churches all of which acknowledge the honorary primacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople.Before 1939 the community numbered more than 15,000, and was the third largest Christian group.Today, the community numbers about 4,000 - in Jerusalem, Haifa, Jaffa and Bethlehem. This church had an early influence on the development of desert monasticism in the wilderness of Judea.
Permanent residence in Jerusalem was not reestablished until 1845.
Historically, this Church developed from the Churches of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate considers itself to be the Mother Church of Jerusalem, to whose bishop patriarchal dignity was granted by the Council of Chalcedon in 451. However, in 1964 a historic meeting between Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Athenagoras, was held in Jerusalem.
It was only with the Crusader Kingdoms, and the paramountcy (praedominium) enjoyed by the (Latin) Church of the West, that contention arose regarding the Holy Places and continued unabated through the Mamluk and Ottoman periods until the declaration of the Status Quo in 1852.
The communities may be divided into four basic categories - Orthodox, Non-Chalcedonian (Monophysite), Catholic (Latin and Uniate) and Protestant - consisting of some 20 ancient and indigenous churches, and another 30, primarily Protestant, denominational groups.
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The non-Chalcedonian churches hold the Monophysite doctrine that in Christ there was but a single, divine nature.